Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a principal well-established technique for analysis of chemical, biological, food and environmental samples. This article provides an overview of the properties and applications of NMR-active nuclei (39 nuclei of 33 different elements) used in NMR measurements (solution- and solid-state NMR, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging) with biological and biomedical systems and samples. The samples include biofluids, cells, tissues, organs or whole body from different organisms (humans, animals, bacteria, fungi, plants) for detecting and quantifying metabolites or environmental samples (water, soils, sediments). Isolated biomolecules (peptides, proteins, nucleic acids) can be analysed for elucidation of atomic-resolution structure, conformation and dynamics and for characterisation of ligand and drug binding, and of protein-ligand, protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. NMR can be used for drug screening and pharmacokinetics and to provide information in the design and discovery of new drugs. NMR can also measure translocation of ions and small molecules across lipid bilayers and membranes, characterise structure, phase behaviour and dynamics of membranes and elucidate atomic-resolution structure, orientation and dynamics of membrane-embedded peptides and proteins.
Keywords: biological and biomedical applications; drug screening; dynamics; magnetic resonance imaging; membrane proteins; metabolomics; MRI; NMR-active nuclei; nuclear magnetic resonance; protein structure
Citation: Patching SG. NMR-Active Nuclei for Biological and Biomedical Applications. Journal of Diagnostic Imaging in Therapy. 2016;3 (1): 7-48.
Copyright: © 2016 Patching SG. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of theCreative Commons Attribution License (CC By 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.
Article History: received 9 May 2016; accepted 25 May 2016; published online 17 June 2016.
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