Gallium-68 radiotracers for Alzheimer’s plaque imaging

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a brain disorder with aggravating symptoms of memory loss and dementia mainly in the elderly population. Imaging tools of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques are necessary for clinical and neuropsychological characteristics in AD.  This is in order to gain global understanding of the disease by the design and selection of effective drugs. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a notable tool for drug advancement because of its high sensitivity and capacity to produce quantitative and kinetic data. PET amyloid imaging is an appropriate technique for studying the amyloid binding. Currently, Pittsburgh P (11C-PIB), a benzothiazole compound, is an outstanding tracer used for attachment to the Aβ plaques.  Other PET imaging probes already in use in clinical trials include thioflavin T, 11C-SB-13, 18F-GE-067,18F-AZD4694, 18F-BAY94-9172 and 18F-AV-45. PET imaging has received prominence because of these important advances in the in vivo β-amyloid plaques detection. However, there is still a need for better tracers. A pathway not yet developed is PET tracers with 68Ga chemistry. 68Ga decays by 89% over positron emission of 1.9 MeV and 11% orbital electron capture. 68Ga possesses a half-life (Τ1/2) of 67.7 min. An important advantage is the long half-life of the generator 68Ge/68Ga generator system that is 270 days. This review focuses on the use of gallium-68 radiotracers used for human amyloid imaging.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; PET amyloid imaging; diagnostic imaging

Citation: Barrios-Lopez B, Airaksinen A, Bergström K. Gallium-68 radiotracers for Alzheimer’s plaque imaging. Journal of Diagnostic Imaging in Therapy. 2015; 2(2): 50-65.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17229/jdit.2015-0930-019

Copyright: © 2015 Barrios-Lopez B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.

Received: 21 August 2015 | Revised: 23 September 2015 | Accepted: 29 September 2015  

Published Online 30 September 2015 http://www.openmedscience.com  

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JDIT-2015-0930-019