68Ga-Somatostatin Analogue PET/CT in Neuroendocrine Tumors

ABSTRACT

Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) include a spectrum of neoplasms characterized by histologic heterogeneity with significant clinical differences. Generally are well differentiated tumors but often present metastases at diagnosis. Conventional imaging techniques result insufficient in early diagnosis and therapy monitoring. Standardized morphological criteria to assess treatment response are inadequate in NETs, because of their biologic evolution and the cytostatic nature of new oncologic treatments. Functional imaging modalities have improved the understanding and diagnosis of NETs by the use of somatostatin analogue tracers labelled with radioisotopes. 111In-Octreotide scintigraphy was considered the gold standard imaging modalities for NET detection with a diagnostic accuracy approximately of 90%. Actually 68Ga-Dota-SST radiotracers (SSTRTs) PET/CT represent a superior imaging procedure with higher accuracy in detection of NET lesions as compared to morphological imaging procedures and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Additionally, the use of somatostatin analogue radiolabelled tracers offers the possibility to non-invasively evaluate the presence of somatostatin receptor expression on NET cells, with direct therapeutic implications. However, in the management of patients with NETs and in the evaluation of response to therapy the specialists opinions remain various. This review is based on a PubMed search of medical literature and presents the systems of classification, grading and staging of NETs. It also summarizes common recommendations for the management of patients with NETs, focused especially on the role of 68Ga-DOTA-SSTRTs PET/CT. In this review, the function of 68Ga-DOTA-SSTRTs PET/CT in pediatric neuroendocrine tumors is also explored.

Keywords: neuroendocrine tumors; 68Ga-DOTA-SSTRTs PET/CT; somatostatin receptor.

Citation: Giovannini E, Gaeta M, Ciarmiello A. 68Ga-Somatostatin analogue PET/CT in neuroendocrine tumors. Journal of Diagnostic Imaging in Therapy. 2014; 1(1): 81-102.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17229/jdit.2014-1030-006

Copyright: © 2014 Giovannini E, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are cited.


Received: 07 October 2014 | Revised: 25 October 2014 | Accepted: 29 October 2014

Published Online 30 October 2014  http://www.openmedscience.com

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JDIT-2014-1030-006